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"We are trying to prove ourselves wrong as quickly as possible, because only in that way can we find progress." Richard Feynman  
   
Cutting Edge    
     
What is gravity?  
   

Gravity remains an enigmatic force. You could be forgiven for thinking it is a well understood phenomenon, but in truth we do not understand the mechanism. It is described mathematically. See Newton quote, right. Einstein effectively replaced Newton's mathematical description of gravity with a mathematical abstraction by factoring in time as a dimension — the fourth dimension. We now live in an age of mathmagics, where theoretical physics have little or no reference to reality.

"You can imagine that I look back on my life's work with calm satisfaction. But from nearby it looks quite different. There is a not a single concept of which I am convinced that it will stand firm, and I feel uncertain whether I am in general on the right track."
Albert Einstein

Gravity is also described as a property of mass, of course, but this helps little given that mass also remains a hypothetical entity. The Higgs boson (God particle) of the Standard model remains elusive (see below), much like hypothesised graviton particles and gravity waves. In General Relativity, gravity results from the curvature of space-time, whatever that means beyond pretty pictures of bending lines. Incidentally, these also seem to warp minds.

"There is no model of the theory of gravitation today, other than the mathematical form."
Richard Feynman

Either way, there is not enough mass in our own galaxy, The Milky Way, to account for it's fortunate tendency not to disintegrate. Hence the invention of further contentious hypotheticals like Dark Matter.

Energy, Mass, and Light by Mathias Hüfner is well worth a read.

 "But hitherto I have not been able to discover the cause of those properties of gravity from phenomena, and I frame no hypotheses." Isaac Newton
   
Has the Higgs boson really been discovered? Your disCERNment is recommended.    
     

More than ten billion dollars have been spent on the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN (Conseil Europeen pour la Recherche Nucleaire) in Switzerland in the hope of finding God, or at least the Higgs boson (God particle) on which the Standard Model rests. Other experiments were planned, but the discovery of the God particle was the principal goal, no doubt about it.

The entity was originally conjured by Peter Higgs, who started out by assuming the existence of a particle that exhibits only mass and no other characteristics. In other words, the Higgs is like no other piece in the puzzle, since all normal matter is composed of electric charges. (Interestingly, whimsical Dark Matter also falls into the same mass only category.) But how can a massive particle exist without charge? What is its structure? Does this underline the problem inherent in leaving physics to mathematicians, and the burgeoning disconnect between mathematical concepts and reality? Just think epicycles, where the mathematical model could make accurate predictions up to a point, and yet failed to reflect the underlying reality.

Pictured below is the hypothesised particle zoo of the standard model, with the hypothetical Higgs at the center.

Higgs Boson

More than 2100 users from various US institutes are registered at CERN, making the United States the lab's largest user community. As if in tribute to this actual fact, it was on American Independence day, 4th July, 2012, and with much fanfare, that the 'discovery' of the Higgs was announced. Given the massive investment in the LHC, they were certainly under pressure to come up with something. That much is not in doubt, either.

After the discovery, the LHC was taken apart and rebuilt with enhancements. More recently, and with much less fanfare, physicists announced that although the LHC had shown hints the Higgs-Boson was 'real,' experiments in the 145 billion to 466 billion electron volt range have excluded its existence! Dmitri Denisov of Fermilab said:

“We do not see the signal. If it existed, we would see it. But when we look at our data, we basically see nothing.”

In another Higgs hiccup, NewScientist reports that the bad boy is "refusing to misbehave."

Physicists have spotted the Higgs boson performing a new trick, but one that brings us no closer to understanding the workings of fundamental particles. The Higgs boson, discovered at the CERN particle physics laboratory near Geneva, Switzerland, in 2012, is the particle that gives all other fundamental particles mass, according to the standard model of particle physics. However, despite the work of thousands of researchers around the world, nobody has been able to figure out exactly how it does that or why some particles are more massive than others.

It seems there may be good reason to be skeptical about the discovery of the Higgs and, by extension, the validity of the standard model. Furthermore, it is now postulated the particle may be composite. In other words, more stuff may need to be conjured up if the standard model is to be saved. Dark Higgs, perhaps?

All this is not to suggest that the CERN crew are deluded or less then intelligent. Far from it. After all, they've effectively invented a perpetual funding machine.

 

"The underlying assumptions of cosmologists today are developed with the most sophisticated mathematical methods and it is only the plasma itself which does not 'understand' how beautiful the theories are and absolutely refuses to obey them." Hannes Alfvén

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

"We are in a period of utter confusion!" Nobel laureate, David Gross

     
Gravity and EM   
   

An examination of the Electromagnetic Gravity hypothesis.

EM Gravity? From principia-scientific.org

An interesting and balanced analysis from a mainstream source. All too often the idea of gravity being of EM origin is dismissed out of hand. Because electromagnetism can be shielded and gravity can't, it is generally assumed that the two forces must be irreconcilable. Such a view is clearly too simplistic, however. This article is therefore strongly recommended.

Wal Thornhill on Gravity. From Holoscience.com

"...The equivalence of inertial and gravitational mass implies that gravity is also an electrical force. Before Einstein, some noted scientists were suggesting that the gravitational force between neutral particles might ultimately be due to electrical polarization within the particles. In 1882, Friedrich Zöllner wrote in the introduction to his book, Explanation of Universal Gravitation through the Static Action of Electricity and The General Importance of Weber's Laws, "…we are to conclude that a pair of electrical particles of opposite signs, i.e. two Weberian molecular pairs attract each other. This attraction is Gravity, it is proportional to the number of molecular pairs." Indeed, gravity can be represented as the sum of the radially aligned electric dipoles formed by all subatomic particles within a charged planet or star.

"This new electrical concept suggests that Newton's "universal constant of gravitation," or "G," is a dependent variable. G depends upon the charge distribution within a celestial body. Highly charged objects like comets look like solid rock, yet they have a gravitational field that suggests they are fluff-balls. And as they discharge they suffer what is euphemistically called "non-gravitational" accelerations. The extreme weakness of the force of gravity, compared to the electric force, is a measure of the minuscule electric dipolar distortion of nucleons. Gravity cannot be shielded by normal electrostatic shielding because all subatomic particles within the gravitational field respond to the dipolar distortion, whether they are metals or non-metals.

"What about magnetism? Ampere's law for the magnetic force between two current carrying wires is found to be equivalent to the transverse electric force caused by the distortion of electrons in an electric field. This distortion causes them to form tiny collinear electric dipoles. That is, the magnetic force is simply another manifestation of the electric force.

"This simple electrical model of matter has the great virtue of reducing all known forces to a single one – the electric force. However, it has a price. We must abandon our peculiar phobia against a force acting at a distance. And we must give up the notion that the speed of light is a real speed barrier. It may seem fast to us, but on a cosmic scale it is glacial. Imposing such a speed limit and requiring force to be transmitted by particles would render the universe completely incoherent. If an electron is composed of smaller subunits of charge orbiting within the classical radius of an electron, then the electric force must operate at a speed far in excess of the speed of light for the electron to remain a coherent object. In fact, it has been calculated that if released, the subunits of charge in the electron could travel from here to the far side of the Andromeda galaxy in one second!

"We have direct evidence of the superluminal action of the electric force, given that gravity is a longitudinal electric force. Indeed, Newton's celebrated equation requires that gravity act instantly on the scale of the solar system. It has been calculated that gravity must operate at a speed of at least 2x1010 times the speed of light, otherwise closely orbiting stars would experience a torque that would sling them apart in mere hundreds of years. Similarly, the Earth responds to the gravitational pull of the Sun where it is at the moment, not where the Sun was 8 minutes ago. If this were not so, the Earth and all other planets in the solar system would be slung into deep space within a few thousand years. Gravity is therefore an electrical property of matter, not a geometrical property of space.

"What is the nature of light? Einstein's special theory of relativity was disconfirmed right at the start by the Michelson-Morley experiment, which showed a residual due to the æther. This was later confirmed by far more rigorous repeats of the experiment by Dayton Miller. But by then popular delusion and the madness of crowds had taken hold and contrary evidence would not be tolerated. The Dayton Miller story makes interesting reading. If it weren't for the extraordinary power of self-delusion, commonsense would tell us that a wave cannot exist in nothing. So Maxwell was right, light is a transverse electromagnetic wave moving through a medium, the æther.

"But what is the æther? In the vacuum of space, each cubic centimetre is teeming with neutrinos. And since neutrinos are resonant orbiting systems of charge, like all matter, they will respond to the electric force by distorting to form a weak electric dipole aligned with the electric field. The speed of light in a vacuum is therefore a measure of the delay in response of the neutrino to the electric force.

"What about the bending of starlight by the Sun, which discovery raised Einstein to megastar status? The residual found in the Michelson-Morley experiments shows that the Earth and all ponderable bodies "drag" the æther along with them. The bending of starlight near the Sun is simply the effect expected of an extensive neutrino atmosphere held to the Sun by gravity. Light will be slowed in the denser medium – causing normal refraction or bending of light..."

 

"There is no model of the theory of gravitation today, other than the mathematical form." Richard Feynman

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

"The machines that are first invented to perform any particular movement are always the most complex, and succeeding artists generally discover that with fewer wheels, with fewer principles of motion than had originally been employed, the same effects may be more easily produced.

"The first philosophical systems, in the same manner, are always the most complex." Adam Smith

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Eric Laithwaite, Gyroscopes, and the 'Abominable Knowmen'    
     

Eric Roberts Laithwaite 1921-1997 was a British electrical engineer and professor of engineering best known as the 'Father of Maglev' for his development of the Linear Induction Motor and Maglev rail system.

He gave a lecture at the Royal Institution which was televised by the BBC in 1974. This can still be found on YouTube, and is well worth viewing. Fascinating about this lecture was the apparent demonstration of weight loss shown by gyroscopes. Laithwaite did not claim to have invented an anti-gravity machine. He merely pointed out that the laws of Newtonian physics do not seem to apply to objects when moving like a gyroscope! All the same, following the publication of his research in this field, many people did contact him about 'antigravity' effects. He was always cautious in his responses, but nevertheless critical of those who dismiss such anomalous effects out of hand.

Laithwaite referred to such people as 'The Abominable Knowmen'. These are the people who simply 'know' that what Laithwaite highlights is 'of no interest' because it has already been 'explained'. The trouble being that explaining something away is quite different from explaining it, as the iconoclastic philosopher Charles Forte was wont to say. Laithwaite was always keen to remind people of what science is really about – observation, exploration, curiosity, wonder, and the occasional flash of insight.

  The fact that an opinion has been widely held is no evidence whatever that it is not utterly absurd; indeed in view of the silliness of the majority of mankind, a widespread belief is more likely to be foolish than sensible." Bertrand Russell
     
The mysterious electron  
   

Despite the importance of the electron, we know surprisingly little about it. For example, we don't know whether it's a wave or a particle, as it displays properties consistent with both (hence the term wave-particle duality) and, according to conventional wisdom, it has no structure.

"All attempts to measure the radius of the electron have failed! All we know is that the radius is less than 10-18 m; that is, its radius is one hundred million times smaller than that of the atom. All the known properties of the electron are consistent with the assumption that its radius is zero. As far as we know, the electron has no structure."

The above is quoted from the London Science Museum web site.

  
   
Ralph Sansbury  
   

Independent New York researcher, Ralph Sansbury, has conducted a number of experiments that could have profound implications. The electron may not be fundmental and indivisible, after all. According to Sansbury, it is composed of smaller particles, which he calls subtrons that orbit within the classical radius of an electron.

A simple calculation gives the somewhat startling result that these subtrons are moving at speeds of 2.5 million light years per second! Theoretically, they could cover the distance from Earth to the far side of the Andromeda galaxy in less than one second. This gives some meaning to the term 'instantaneous action at a distance'. Importantly, this is a requirement for any new theory of gravity.

Further

 Ralph Sansbury
   
Morphic fields  
   

Rupert Sheldrake, a professor at Cambridge University, has popularised the idea of morphic fields. To oversimplify, he theorises that memory is inherent in nature, and that all natural systems, from crytals to animals, inherit a memory of their kind. Each system is shaped by this pooled or collective memory. It is a view, of course, that has parallels with the Electric Universe, where there is a complex dance of electric particles and sub-particles.

www.sheldrake.org

  
   
Challenging absolute time  
   
Russian scientists discover unexpected regularities in radioactive decay linked to astronomical cycles

From the link: "The implication is that many phenomena which until now have been regarded as purely statistical in character — such as the distribution of fluctuations in the momentary rates of radioactivity measured in a sample — are somehow controlled or at least strongly influenced by an astrophysical factor..."

If radioactive decay is linked to astronomical cycles, as these scientists argue, then this could challenge conventional chronologies. Additionally, if the solar system has suffered upheavals in recent millenia, especially of an intense electrical nature as many catastrophists contend, then traditional dating methods become almost obsolete.

 "No hand can make the clock strike for me the hours that are passed." Byron
   
Polar reversals    
     

The Diehold foundation is the brainchild of Douglas Vogt whose work focuses on Polar Reversals and Ice Ages, both of which are known to have happened. However, running contrary to the populist idea that Global Warming results from human produced CO2 (Anthropogenic Global Warming or AGW), Vogt believes that temperatures here on Earth are driven principally by solar cycles. A view that has parallels with the Electric Universe and the Electric Sun model.

When you consider that only 0.04% of the atmosphere is CO2, and at least 96% results from natural sources like volcanoes and rotting vegetable matter, it seems reasonable to doubt that any reduction in human CO2 emissions will have a significant effect on global warming. Claims that all scientists agree with AGW have been falsified, and do not merit serious discussion even if they are repeated ad nauseam by the mainstream media. Many therefore take a cynical view of the CO2 approach, suggesting it is merely another form of taxation, while others have gone further with various conspiracy theories. The latter often point to the numerous DUMBs (deep underground military bases) which are well documented, arguing that the 'elite' are already making preparations for various doomsday scenarios.

Vogt believes our Sun has a clock cycle, and that numerous historical events verify his time line. This clock cycle crosses the x-axis every 12,068 years, and a complete cycle represents two polar reversals, or 24,136 years. Worryingly, according to his calculations we are due for another polar reversal in 2046, which will probably result in another ice age after tumultuous events here on terra firma. He argues that when the poles shift, the earth will slow down and stop for a few days resulting in the oceans washing over the land and effectively 'wiping the slate clean'. He sometimes refers to this as God's Day of Judgement, although he believes that actions can be taken to mitigate some of the forthcoming disasters.

Many catastrophists will be sympathetic to his ideas, especially in relation to pole shifts and natural disasters. Hopefully, his time line is wrong and another polar reversal is a long way off?

  "In the sciences, the authority of thousands of opinions is not worth as much as one tiny spark of reason in an individual man." Galileo Galilei
     
Over Unity?    
     

I get a lot of emails asking me about Over Unity devices in relation to electromagnetism and its many mysterious behaviours. I do not claim to have any expertise in this field, but there are a number of interesting lectures available on YouTube. Needless to say, this is a controversial field and many of the claims being made are dismissed out of hand. Mind you, much of the material on this web site suffers a similar fate, so caution and an open mind are always recommended.

Andrew Johnson, who takes a keen interest in the UFO phenomenon, discusses 'free energy' and over unity in this challenging YouTube video entitled Infinite Energy. He is a lecturer with the Open University.

www.checktheevidence.com

  “Almost all people are hypnotics. The proper authority saw to it that the proper belief should be induced, and the people believed properly.” Charles Fort
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